This page was last updated on 7/2/2018.
You need to follow time-tested and evidence-based strength training guidelines if you want to build strength and muscle mass efficiently.
The most important strength training guideline is progressive resistance. All other rules are subservient to this rule: To gain strength and muscle mass, you must gradually progress the resistance or loads you use in your training.
Muscular strength is simply defined as the ability to exert force. The body increases muscle mass when increased mass is required to produce greater amounts of force. Strength and muscle grow only if you subject your muscles to ever-increasing demands for force production.
This means you must design your training so that you can gradually increase the force you can exert, which means gradually increasing the amount of resistance you can handle for specified time periods.
This fact leads many people to focus only on increasing the number of repetitions they can perform, or the total amount of weight they can lift in an exercise, at the expense of proper exercise form. This is counterproductive. You can't achieve true progression of resistance without standardizing exercise form. You have to implement the other strength training guidelines below in order to ensure that you are making genuine progress.
A well-balanced strength training routine must include training for all major muscle groups of the body and cover the main planes of movement.
Your training routine must include movements for both the upper and lower body. The upper body portion must include equal proportions of both pulling movements that train the upper back, biceps and forearms, and pushing movements that train the chest, shoulders and triceps. The lower body training must include movements for the lower back, hips, hamstrings, front thighs and calves.
Upper body movements should also cover the full range of shoulder motion. The two main planes of movement for pulling and pushing are upward/downward and forward/backward, usually referred to as vertical and horizontal. Barring injuries limiting range of motion, you should include at least one movement that covers each of the following planes of motion:
The lower body can be trained with squatting (including lunges), back extensions, leg curls, straight leg deadlifts, and rise on toes
Thus the minimum program consists of eight movements:
A beginner can train all muscles of the body with a very limited program of 6-9 exercises per session. You do not have to perform all of the above exercises in one session, but can spread them out over several sessions. Please read the strength training guidelines below to learn how to perform these exercises safely and effectively.
Resistance training exercises can be divided into single joint and multi-joint varieties.
Examples of single-joint or “isolation” movements include: rise on toes, elbow flexion (curls), elbow extension, abdominal crunches, neck extension, neck flexion, wrist flexion, wrist extension, machine leg extension, machine or band leg curls
Examples of multi-joint movements include: squats, straight-leg deadlifts, chin ups, pull ups, presses, handstands, rows, push ups, front lever, back lever, half lever
Handstands and levers belong in the multi-joint category because, although it may look like movement is occurring around only one joint, in fact these movements require strong muscular tension across multiple joints. They are full body movements.
Your routine should be primarily composed of multi-joint movements because these train multiple muscle groups concurrently, reducing the amount of time you need to devote to training compared to a full-body balanced routine composed of single-joint movements. Moreover, multi-joint movements have the strongest impact on the body to stimulate overall athletic improvement.
However, it is also necessary to include some single-joint movements to adequately train some muscles that are not adequately trained by multi-joint movements, namely calves and neck at a minimum. Most people can also benefit from direct forearm training (wrist extension and flexion), and some people will benefit from including direct upper arm training.
To get maximum benefits from strength training you must perform your repetitions properly so that you load the target muscles efficiently. If you want to ensure that you are actually progressing in strength, you need to standardize your exercise form. Here's why:
Let's say you can do 8 full range pull ups with your bodyweight, and each repetition is performed as follows:
You decide to add ten pounds around your waist at your next training session. You perform 8 repetitions. You might think it goes without saying that you have progressed. However, upon analysis, in this session you performed the pull ups as follows:
On this second session, you have increased the resistance, but you have changed your pull up performance in a way that makes each repetition much easier. Therefore, it is unclear whether you have actually progressed or imposed greater demands on your upper back, biceps and forearms.
Proper form is one of the most important strength training rules. Proper form includes 1) using a full range of motion, 2) controlling the turn-arounds at the ends of the range of motion, 3) using a proper movement speed, and 4) using an effective level of effort.
In strength training, you are not using your muscles to do something to the resistance (whether bodyweight or external weights), your are using the resistance to do something to your muscles – namely, stimulate them to grow stronger and larger. Therefore, you must make progression of resistance or difficulty subordinate to maintenance of consistent form.
On every movement, you should use the fullest possible range of motion given your anatomical structure and limitations. Strength only develops in trained ranges of motion, so you have to train the full range of motion to get full range strength. Also, full ranges of motion improve flexibility whereas using artificially limited ranges of motion limits your mobility.
Performance of any exercise can involve up to three different types of muscle activity:
When performing a movement, you should always control turn-arounds, because most injuries occur when moving into or out of end ranges of motion. Ease into the stretched range of motion, and briefly pause there to dissipate elastic forces so that you use strength, not elastic rebound, to move the resistance, and also to avoid damaging the joint tissues with impact forces. Also, you should pause for a moment in the contracted range of motion, where we tend to be weak.
Exercise form includes repetition velocity: how fast you perform each repetition or phase of the movement. Research suggests that repetition durations ranging from 0.5 to 8.0 s produce similar muscle growth, but moving deliberately slowly so that repetitions take 10 s or more may be inferior [1, 2].
Proper movement speed depends on your level of training. A novice should use a purposefully slow movement to learn how to properly perform the movement with the target musculature. This requires taking about 3 seconds to lift the weight (concentric phase) and 3 seconds to lower the weight (eccentric phase).
After 6 months or more of practicing such purposefully slow controlled motion and establishing a mind-muscle connection, an experienced trainee should move like a novice during the first 2-3 repetitions, to build a warm-up into the set, and to avoid injury when muscles are fresh and can produce high forces. After this, for the remaining repetitions the speed should be determined by the load or resistance, i.e. you should attempt to move as fast as possible, although due to the load and fatigue you will not be able to move very fast at all.
Here’s how you determine the optimum repetition speed for any movement:
For most exercises that start from the bottom position such as overhead presses and chin ups, start the first 2-3 repetitions of a set by gradually producing enough force to initiate movement. From there, continue to apply adequate force to maintain the speed of movement without acceleration.
Once you reach the top end of the range of motion, pause very briefly - one second or less - and reduce your force production to allow the weight to reverse direction. Now reduce your force production to allow a controlled descent of the load. Ease into the bottom and pause briefly to dissipate elastic forces (i.e. no bouncing out of the bottom), then repeat the process for the next repetition.
For most exercises that start from the top position such as dips and squats, start the first 2-3 repetitions of a set by smoothly and slowly unlocking the joints to initiate movement, producing sufficient force against the load to maintain a controlled descent into the bottom. Ease into the bottom, most difficult position, and pause for 1-2 seconds to dissipate elastic forces. Next, start upward by producing as much force as you can to get the load moving upward. At the top pause briefly to allow kinetic energy to dissipate, and then repeat the process for the next repetition.
After the first 2-3 repetitions, as you fatigue, you can move as fast as possible on the concentric phase, but because of fatigue produced by the first half of the set, you will not be able to move quickly. You should continue to use a controlled speed on eccentric phases and ease into the stretched position in order to avoid using elastic rebound and impact forces on the joints in the vulnerable position.
This method of performance makes the muscles work much harder on each repetition. Most importantly, it minimizes the risk of injury due to impact forces caused by sudden acceleration and deceleration at the end ranges of motion.
Harder is better. If you perform exercises this way, generally your repetitions for major upper or lower body movements will be 4 to 6 seconds in duration, although the time will vary from individual to individual due to differences in limb length. Movements with very short strokes such as rise on toes, wrist extension or flexion, or neck extension or flexion will have shorter repetition duration, and movements with longer strokes such as chin ups or deep squats will have longer repetition duration.
Remember this: In training your goal is to make your body work hard in order to stimulate adaptation. Thus, you should make the exercises as difficult as possible by maintaining strict form. Relaxing form to achieve more time under load, more repetitions or more resistance will reduce stimulation and thus hinder true progress. If you thoroughly stimulate the muscles and provide adequate rest and recovery the progression of time under load or resistance will take care of itself.
The effective level of effort means doing as many repetitions as possible (AMRAP) on every set without losing proper form, including proper speed. Apparently, it is not necessary to train to failure to obtain strength and mass gains [3,4] and training to failure increases the amount of time required for recovery after training [5,6]. In sets with high loads (≥70% 1RM) all motor units are activated before muscular failure, and in sets with low loads and high repetitions, all motor units are activated 3-5 repetitions before muscular failure .
However, considerable evidence indicates that training to momentary muscular failure, when it is safe to do so, produces the most rapid gains of strength and mass . Therefore, so long as it is safe to do so, train to failure, defined as the inability to lift the resistance in the prescribed form (i.e. if you have to change form or "cheat" to complete a repetition, you have reached failure).
To adequately train muscles to stimulate gains in strength and muscle mass, you must use an appropriate load or resistance.
Novices should use loads approximating 60-65% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). This translates to a load with which you can perform 10-20 controlled repetitions.
Experienced trainees should use loads in the range of 75-80% of 1 RM on most work sets. This generally translates to a load with which you can perform 6-12 repetitions using the form guidelines above. However, due to individual variations in muscle fiber type proportions, people with higher proportions of type 1 fatigue-tolerant fibers will be able to perform 12-20 repetitions with 75-80% of 1 RM. Generally this applies to people who have a natural gift for greater muscular endurance but are not very strong or naturally muscular. Many women fall into this category. You will have to experiment to find out what repetition range feels best and produces the best gains in strength and mass for you.
Volume refers to the amount of exercise you perform. Volume and intensity of effort are always inversely related. The more force you
exert, the less time you can sustain it. You can run hard and fast, or
you can run for a long time, but you can't run hard and fast for a long
time. This is a simple physiological fact.
You have limited time and energy. Exercise takes some of that time and energy. Time spent on exercise can't be spent on other activities such as work, play, relationships, etc. Therefore, it is generally wise to find the minimum dose of exercise that will produce the desired results.
The minimum effective dose of any exercise is one set. At least 45 controlled trials have shown that 1 set triggers the same degree of strength development as 2, 3, or 4 sets. An additional 12 studies have found no differences in outcome between performing 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 15 sets for any muscle group or exercise .
That’s a total of 57 studies showing no benefit to performing more than one set of any exercise. In contrast, only 5 studies have reported a significantly greater increase in strength from multiple set routines than from single set routines. The vast majority of research supports the conclusion that one properly performed set of any exercise produces the same outcome as any other number of sets up to 15 [23, 24].
That said, some muscle groups having a high ratio of type 1 fatigue-tolerant fibers may respond best to multiple sets in a session. Also, we have evidence that about 60% of the general population has a fatigue-tolerant genotype that may respond better to multiple set training programs rather than single set programs .
If performing multiple sets per muscle group in a single session, it may be best to use multiple exercises, each for a single set, rather than repeat the same exercise for multiple sets. In general, performing multiple exercises may result in a more thorough stimulation of the target muscle group due to different exercises producing distinct motor unit recruitment .
One study found that inclusion of multiple exercises for quadriceps (squats, leg press, deadlift and lunge) produced slightly greater strength gains and slightly more homogeneous muscle growth than using only one exercise ; however the differences were small and the group that used only one exercise (squats, multiple sets) made very good strength gains (20-40% increase in 1RM) and the total increase in muscle cross-sectional area did not statistically differ between the groups.
For some muscle groups there is little or no point in using multiple exercises because there may not be sufficient difference between different exercises (e.g. rise on toes, overhead press, bench press), or one exercise is so superior to all others in safety or effectiveness that there is no point in doing others (e.g. barbell press is safer and easier to load than dumbbell press), or the trainee has equipment or other limitations that make it necessary or most convenient to use the same exercise for multiple sets.
For example, here are some examples of 2-set or 3-set thigh and hip training sessions:
Also, some people may find that they get the best results doing only one or at most two movements per muscle group in a training session, but different movements for each muscle group in each of 2 or 3 training sessions per week. Using the exercises above, for example, one might do barbell squats on Mondays, split squats or pistol squats on Wednesdays, and front squats on Fridays.
If you perform multiple sets of a single exercise, probably the best loading method is the reverse pyramid because it will allow you to use the highest set load of any multiple set method, and also produces the greatest inroad in the fewest number of sets and shortest time period.
In general you should do the least number of exercises and sets per muscle group that will promote strength gains for you. Generally this is in the range of 1-3 sets per major muscle group per session.
Strength training is most effective with adequate inter-set rest intervals. Rushing from one exercise to the next turns a strength training session into a metabolic training session.
Novices are generally using lighter weights and have not yet learned to tap the full strength of their muscles during sets. They can rest 30-60 seconds between sets.
Experienced trainees achieve a deep level of fatigue in a single set. They may need to rest 1-3 minutes or longer, up to 5 minutes between sets to be able to exert adequate effort in each successive set; longer interset rest periods appear likely to improve strength and mass gains by enabling a trainee to use heavier loads for more repetitions (or greater time under load) [17, 18].
Frequency refers to how often you train. As with volume, frequency is inversely related to effort. The more effort you put into training, the less frequently you can tolerate the effort.
Resistance training research generally indicates that muscle protein synthesis is elevated for about 36 hours after a resistance training session . This suggests that for most beginning and novice trainees, local muscle recovery is generally completed within 48 hours. Thus, the optimal training frequency for most novice is no more frequently than once every 48 hours. Assuming each session trains the whole body, this permits a training schedule of two or three times weekly on alternating days.
A 2015 review of resistance training-induced changes in muscle protein synthesis and their contribution to hypertrophy by Damas et al. reported that trained individuals have a blunted response to resistance training, with less increase in protein synthesis for a shorter period of time [26, table below]. Evidently, for trained individuals post-training muscle protein synthesis is elevated for only 36 hours. Once protein synthesis returns to baseline, the anabolic effect of training ends. This suggests that trained individuals can also benefit from training each muscle group two to three times weekly, provided that total volume of work does not exceed recovery capacity.
If you train your full body two or three times weekly you leave 4 or 5 days for recovery and other activities. Some research suggests that full body routines are more effective than so-called split routines [20, 21].
As you approach your genetic potential the rate of progression will decline in any case, resulting in diminishing returns for frequent training. Also, more highly trained individuals can train harder, producing greater inroads to recovery ability, and most will need to reduce training frequency from thrice weekly progressively to only twice weekly, then in some cases three times in two weeks, and eventually only once weekly (per muscle group).
If you tolerate them, full body routines do allow you to train the whole body with maximum tolerable frequency while also allowing you maximum rest days. If you use a full body routine three times weekly, you load every body part thrice weekly while allowing yourself 4 days to rest from strength training. Full body training twice weekly gives you 2 training and 5 rest days each week.
However, as you progress full body training sessions become more exhausting and time-consuming. You may need to switch to a split routine to fit training to your time and energy constraints. Generally the best strategy to minimize overlap is to split the routine into upper body and lower body sessions, performing each 1-2 times weekly.
Strength training makes demands on your recovery ability. While your potential recovery ability is most likely genetically determined, several factors determine whether you realize your full potential for recovery from intense exercise. To realize your full recovery capacity you can do the following:
To succeed in strength training, you need to incorporate periods of reduced effort into your schedule to allow the body to recover from the intense efforts. On page 181 of Building the Gymnastic Body, Christopher Sommer explains:
"By constantly attempting to improve from workout to workout; more weight, more reps, more volume, more speed, etc. over and extended period of time, the athlete will eventually, usually within an eight week time frame, come up against their [sic] current physical limitation. Continued attempt to try to force the body to blast thru these very real physical limitations are fruitless as the body's schedule of regeneration and adaptation is set and cannot be exceeded.
"All that will be accomplished by continually struggling to exceed these biological limitations are a plethora of over-training issues, among these being: joint pain, muscle strains, lack of energy, decrease in coordination, lack of explosiveness, connective tissue issues and mental fatigue. In addition, continuing to push in the fact of these over-training issues will often result in a short-term injury, which could easily have been resolved through reduced training or rest, becoming a chronic or permanent physical impairment."
The mind has limitless desires, but the body has natural limits. Improvements in your body are accomplished by biochemical reactions that take definite amounts of time. It is impossible to increase the rate at which your body can build muscle, bone, or connective tissue. You can provide the stimulus for change, but you have to allow the body to change at its own rate. As the European proverb goes, you can't push the river.
1. Schoenfeld BJ, Ogborn DI, Krieger JW. Effect of Repetition Duration During Resistance Training on Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med 2015 Jan. <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271533635_Effect_of_Repetition_Duration_During_Resistance_Training_on_Muscle_Hypertrophy_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta-Analysis>
2. Schilling BK, Falvo MJ, Chiu LZF. Force-velocity, impulse-momentum relationships: Implications for efficacy of purposefully slow resistance training. J Sports Sci and Med 2008;7:299-304.
3. Nóbrega SR, Libardi CA. Is Resistance Training to Muscular Failure Necessary? Frontiers in Physiology. 2016;7:10. doi:10.3389/fphys.2016.00010.
4. Folland J, Irish C, Roberts J, Tarr J, Jones D, Williams A. Fatigue is not a necessary stimulus for strength gains during resistance training. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2002;36(5):370-374. doi:10.1136/bjsm.36.5.370.
5. Pareja-Blanco F, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Ribas-Serna J, López-López C, Mora-Custodio R, Yáñez-García JM, González-Badillo JJ. Acute and delayed response to resistance exercise leading or not leading to muscle failure. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2017 Nov;37(6):630-639. doi: 10.1111/cpf.12348. Epub 2016 Mar 11. PubMed PMID: 26970332.
6. Morán-Navarro R, Pérez CE, Mora-Rodríguez R, de la Cruz-Sánchez E, González-Badillo JJ, Sánchez-Medina L, Pallarés JG. Time course of recovery following resistance training leading or not to failure. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017 Dec;117(12):2387-2399. doi: 10.1007/s00421-017-3725-7. Epub 2017 Sep 30. PubMed PMID: 28965198.
7. Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD, Andersen CH, Zebis MK, Mortensen OS, Andersen LL. Muscle activation strategies during strength training with heavy loading vs. repetitions to failure. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):1897-903. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318239c38e. PubMed PMID: 21986694.
8. Figueiredo VC, de Salles BF, Trajano GS. Volume for Muscle Hypertrophy and Health Outcomes: The Most Effective Variable in Resistance Training. Sports Med. 2018 Mar;48(3):499-505. doi: 10.1007/s40279-017-0793-0. PubMed PMID: 29022275.
9. Wernbom M, Augustsson J, Thomeé R. The influence of frequency, intensity, volume and mode of strength training on whole muscle cross-sectional area in humans. Sports Med. 2007;37(3):225-64. Review. PubMed PMID: 17326698.
10. Schoenfeld BJ, Ogborn D, Krieger JW. Dose-response relationship between weekly resistance training volume and increases in muscle mass: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sports Sci. 2017 Jun;35(11):1073-1082. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1210197. Epub 2016 Jul 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 27433992.
11. Ralston GW, Kilgore L, Wyatt FB, Baker JS. The Effect of Weekly Set Volume on Strength Gain: A Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z). 2017;47(12):2585-2601. doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0762-7. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684266/>
12. Borde R, Hortobágyi T, Granacher U. Dose–Response Relationships of Resistance Training in Healthy Old Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z). 2015;45(12):1693-1720. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0385-9.
13. Burd, Nicholas A et al. “Resistance Exercise Volume Affects Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis and Anabolic Signalling Molecule Phosphorylation in Young Men.” The Journal of Physiology 588.Pt 16 (2010): 3119–3130. PMC. Web. 2 June 2017.
14. Mitchell, Cameron J. et al. “Resistance Exercise Load Does Not Determine Training-Mediated Hypertrophic Gains in Young Men.” Journal of Applied Physiology 113.1 (2012): 71–77. PMC. Web. 2 June 2017.
15. Kumar, Vinod et al. “Age-Related Differences in the Dose–response Relationship of Muscle Protein Synthesis to Resistance Exercise in Young and Old Men.” The Journal of Physiology 587.Pt 1 (2009): 211–217. PMC. Web. 2 June 2017.
16. Fish DE, Krabak BJ, Johnson-Greene D, DeLateur BJ. Optimal resistance training: comparison of DeLorme with Oxford techniques. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Dec;82(12):903-9. PubMed PMID: 14627926.
17. Schoenfeld BJ, Pope ZK, Benik FM, Hester GM, Sellers J, Nooner JL, Schnaiter JA, Bond-Williams KE, Carter AS, Ross CL, Just BL, Henselmans M, Krieger JW. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men. J Strength Cond Res. 2016 Jul;30(7):1805-12. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001272. PubMed PMID: 26605807..
18. Henselmans M, Schoenfeld BJ. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy. Sports Med. 2014 Dec;44(12):1635-43. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0228-0. Review. PubMed PMID: 25047853.
19. MacDougall JD, Gibala MJ, Tanopolski MA, et al. The Time Course for Elevated Muscle Protein Synthesis Following Heavy Resistance Exercise. Can J Appl Physiol 1995;20:480-86.
20. Schoenfeld BJ, Ratamess NA, Peterson MD, Contreras B, Tiryaki-Sonmez G. Influence of Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Adaptations in Well-Trained Men. J Strength Cond Res. 2015 Jul;29(7):1821-9. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000970. PubMed PMID: 25932981.
21. Schoenfeld BJ, Ogborn D, Krieger JW. Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2016 Nov;46(11):1689-1697. Review. PubMed PMID: 27102172.
22. Ioannidis JPA (2005) Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PLoS Med 2(8): e124. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124
23. Fisher J, Steele J, Bruce-Low S, Smith D. Evidence-based resistance training recommendations. Medicina Sportiva 2011; 15(3):147-162.
24. Carpinelli RN. Berger in retrospect: Effect of varied weight training programs on strength. Br J Sports Med 2002;36(5):319-324.
25. Gentil P, Fisher J, Steele J, et al. Effects of equal-volume resistance training with different training frequencies in muscle size and strength in trained men. Ramírez-Campillo R, ed. PeerJ. 2018;6:e5020. doi:10.7717/peerj.5020.
26. Damas F, Phillips S, Vechin FC, Ugrinowitsch C. A review of resistance training-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis and their contribution to hypertrophy. Sports Med 2015;45:801-807.
27. Ugrinowitsch, Carlos. "Changes in Exercises Are More Effective Than in Loading Schemes to Improve Muscle Strength." Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 28.11 (2014): 3085–3092-3085&ndash-ndash;3092-3085–3092.
28. Colakoglu M, Cam FS, Kayitken B, Cetinoz F, Colakoglu S, Turkmen M, Sayin M. ACE genotype may have an effect on single versus multiple set preferences in strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 Sep;95(1):20-6. Epub 2005 Jul 8. PubMed PMID: 16003539.